Original Research

Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a poor peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa

Folake O. Samuel, Abdulkadir A. Egal, Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron, Carin E. Napier, Christine S. Venter
Health SA Gesondheid | Vol 15, No 1 | a433 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v15i1.433 | © 2010 Folake O. Samuel, Abdulkadir A. Egal, Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron, Carin E. Napier, Christine S. Venter | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 April 2009 | Published: 11 May 2010

About the author(s)

Folake O. Samuel, Institute of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology,South Africa Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Abdulkadir A. Egal, Institute of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa
Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron, Institute of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa
Carin E. Napier, Department of Food and Nutrition Consumer Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko campus, South Africa
Christine S. Venter, Institute of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom campus, South Africa


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Abstract

This cross-sectional study assessed the risk of zinc deficiency in randomly selected children, aged between 7 and 11 years, living in a poor, peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa. Dietary intake of 149 respondents was evaluated by 24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of a subset of 113 were determined. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were computed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0. Anthropometric data were analysed using the World Health Organization Anthro plus version 1.0.2 statistical software. Dietary data were analysed with FoodFinder® version 3. The mean age of the children was 9.0±1.1 years. Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 µg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 µg/dL cut-off. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc status for the majority of this study population of children, possibly as a result of low consumption of food sources with high bioavailability of zinc, which invariably is a direct consequence of poverty and food insecurity.

Opsomming

Die doel van hierdie dwarsdeursnitstudie was die bepaling van die risiko van ’n sinktekort in ’n ewekansige steekproef van 7 tot 11 jaar-oue kinders, woonagtig in ’n arm, voorstedelike informele woonbuurt in Suid Afrika. Dieetinnames van 149 respondente is geëvalueer deur 24-uur herroep en kwantitatiewe voedselfrekwensie vraelyste. Antropometriese en biochemiese indikatore van ’n kleiner steekproef van 113 is ook bepaal. Beskrywende statistiek, analise van variansie en Pearsonkorrelasies is bepaal deur die Statistical Package for Social Sciences, uitgawe 14.0. Antropometriese data is geanaliseer deur die statistiese program, Anthro plus, uitgawe 1.0.2, van die Wêreld Gesondheid Organisasie. Dieetdata is met behulp van FoodFinder® uitgawe 3 geanaliseer. Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die kinders was 9.0±1.1 jaar. Min sinkryke voedselbronne is in die hoofsaaklik plantryke dieet waargeneem. Die gemiddelde sinkinname was 4.6±2.2 mg/dag en die gemiddelde serumsinkwaarde was 66.4±21.5 µg/dL, met 46% van die kinders se waardes onder die 70 µg/dL afsnypunt. Die bevindings dui op ’n hoë risiko vir sinktekort en suboptimale sinkstatus vir die meerderheid van hierdie kinders, moontlik as gevolg van die swak inname van voedselbronne met hoë biobeskikbare sink, wat gewoonlik ’n direkte gevolg van armoede en huishoudelike voedsel insekuriteit is.


Keywords

defciency; diet; poverty; vulnerable; zinc; prevalence

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Crossref Citations

1. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study
Nelia Steyn, Gabriel Eksteen, Marjanne Senekal
Nutrients  vol: 8  issue: 8  first page: 509  year: 2016  
doi: 10.3390/nu8080509