Original Research

Effects of metformin on arterial elasticity and pro-inflammatory markers in black diabetes patients

Tsakani L. Rasakanya, Elzbieta Osuch
Health SA Gesondheid | Vol 29 | a2419 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v29i0.2419 | © 2024 Tsakani L. Rasakanya, Elzbieta Osuch | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 24 April 2023 | Published: 14 June 2024

About the author(s)

Tsakani L. Rasakanya, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, Pretoria, South Africa
Elzbieta Osuch, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

Background: Pro-inflammatory markers are linked with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial stiffening. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Augmentation Index (Aix) are non-invasive standard markers of arterial elasticity and predictors of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.

Aim: To investigate the effects of metformin alone and in combination with glimepiride on arterial elasticity, pro-inflammatory cytokines in black type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Settings: Participants were enrolled from Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University community, Gauteng, South Africa.

Methods: PWV and Aix were measured using the AtCor SphygmoCor® system (AtCor Medical, Inc., Sydney, Australia). Cytokines levels were measured using Multiplexing with Bio-Plex Pro™ human inflammation panel I assay. Treatment naïve type 2 diabetes participants were divided into two groups: metformin (M) (n = 10) and metformin glimepiride (MS) (n = 14). The study participants were followed up at 4 and 8 months after treatment initiation.

Results: In the M and MS, IL-1β increased significantly at four months (58.19 ± 0.03 pg/ml, 58.35 ± 0.30 pg/ml) when compared to baseline (33.05 ± 18.56 pg/ml, 34.79 ± 18.77 pg/ml) then decreased significantly at eight months (29.25 ± 11.64 pg/ml, 32.54 ± 14.26 pg/ml) when compared to four months (58.19 ± 0.03 pg/ml, 58.35 ± 0.3 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in PWV, Aix, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels at both treatment intervals.

Conclusion: Metformin alone or in combination with glimepiride did not improve arterial elasticity and did not reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in T2DM black South African patients.

Contribution: The context-based knowledge generated by the current study is expected to enhance the continuum of care for T2DM patients.


Keywords

arterial elasticity; pulse wave velocity; augmentation index; type 2 diabetes mellitus; pro-inflammatory markers

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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